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USC Title 26 enacted through 2008

§ 357. Assumption of liability

General rule
Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), if -
the taxpayer receives property which would be permitted to be received under section 351 or 361 without the recognition of gain if it were the sole consideration, and
as part of the consideration, another party to the exchange assumes a liability of the taxpayer,
then such assumption shall not be treated as money or other property, and shall not prevent the exchange from being within the provisions of section 351 or 361, as the case may be.
Tax avoidance purpose
In general
If, taking into consideration the nature of the liability and the circumstances in the light of which the arrangement for the assumption was made, it appears that the principal purpose of the taxpayer with respect to the assumption described in subsection (a) -
was a purpose to avoid Federal income tax on the exchange, or
if not such purpose, was not a bona fide business purpose,
then such assumption (in the total amount of the liability assumed pursuant to such exchange) shall, for purposes of section 351 or 361 (as the case may be), be considered as money received by the taxpayer on the exchange.
Burden of proof
In any suit or proceeding where the burden is on the taxpayer to prove such assumption is not to be treated as money received by the taxpayer, such burden shall not be considered as sustained unless the taxpayer sustains such burden by the clear preponderance of the evidence.
Liabilities in excess of basis
In general
In the case of an exchange -
to which section 351 applies, or
to which section 361 applies by reason of a plan of reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(D) with respect to which stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 355,
if the sum of the amount of the liabilities assumed exceeds the total of the adjusted basis of the property transferred pursuant to such exchange, then such excess shall be considered as a gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset or of property which is not a capital asset, as the case may be.
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any exchange -
to which subsection (b)(1) of this section applies, or
which is pursuant to a plan of reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(G) where no former shareholder of the transferor corporation receives any consideration for his stock.
Certain liabilities excluded
In general
If a taxpayer transfers, in an exchange to which section 351 applies, a liability the payment of which either -
would give rise to a deduction, or
would be described in section 736(a),
then, for purposes of paragraph (1), the amount of such liability shall be excluded in determining the amount of liabilities assumed.
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any liability to the extent that the incurrence of the liability resulted in the creation of, or an increase in, the basis of any property.
Determination of amount of liability assumed
In general
For purposes of this section, section 358(d), section 358(h), section 361(b)(3), section 362(d), section 368(a)(1)(C), and section 368(a)(2)(B), except as provided in regulations -
a recourse liability (or portion thereof) shall be treated as having been assumed if, as determined on the basis of all facts and circumstances, the transferee has agreed to, and is expected to, satisfy such liability (or portion), whether or not the transferor has been relieved of such liability; and
except to the extent provided in paragraph (2), a nonrecourse liability shall be treated as having been assumed by the transferee of any asset subject to such liability.
Exception for nonrecourse liability
The amount of the nonrecourse liability treated as described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be reduced by the lesser of -
the amount of such liability which an owner of other assets not transferred to the transferee and also subject to such liability has agreed with the transferee to, and is expected to, satisfy; or
the fair market value of such other assets (determined without regard to section 7701(g)).
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection and section 362(d). The Secretary may also prescribe regulations which provide that the manner in which a liability is treated as assumed under this subsection is applied, where appropriate, elsewhere in this title.

Tax Code (Internal Revenue Code) Section Index

U.S. GAAP by Codification Topic
105 GAAP Hierarchy
105 GAAP History

205 Presentation of Financial Statements
205-20 Discontinued Operations
210 Balance Sheet
210-20 Offsetting
220 Comprehensive Income
225 Income Statement
225-20 Extraordinary and Unusual Items
230 Statement of Cash Flows
250 Accounting Changes and Error Corrections
260 Earnings per Share
270 Interim Reporting

310 Impairment of a Loan
320 Investment Securities
320 Other-Than-Temporary Impairments, FSP FAS 115-2
320-10-05 Overview of Investments in Other Entities
320-10-35 Reclassification of Investments in Securities
323-10 Equity Method Investments
323-30 Investments in Partnerships and Joint Ventures
325-20 Cost Method Investments
330 Inventory

340-20 Capitalized Advertising Costs
350-20 Goodwill
350-30 Intangibles Other than Goodwill
350-40 Internal-Use Software
350-50 Website Development Costs
360 Property, Plant and Equipment
360-20 Real Estate Sales

410 Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations
420 Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations
450 Contingencies
450-20 Loss Contingencies
450-30 Gain Contingencies
480 Redeemable Financial Instruments

505-20 Stock Dividends, Stock Splits
505-30 Treasury Stock

605 SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin, Topic 13
605-25 Revenue Recognition - Multiple Element Arrangements

715-30 Defined Benefit Plans - Pension
718 Share-Based Payment
730 Research and Development
730-20 Research and Development Arrangements

805 Business Combinations
810 Consolidation
810 Noncontrolling Interests
810 Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, SFAS 167

815 Derivatives and Hedging Overview

820 Fair Value Measurements
820 Fair value when the markets are not active, FSP FAS 157-4
825 Fair Value Option

830 Foreign Currency Matters
830-20 Foreign Currency Transactions
830-30 Translation of Financial Statements
835 Interest
835-20 Capitalization of Interest
835-30 Imputation of Interest

840 Leases
840-20 Operating Leases
840-30 Capital Leases
840-40 Sale-Leaseback Transactions
845 Nonmonetary Transactions

855 Subsequent Events
860-20 Sale of Financial Assets, SFAS 166
860-50 Servicing Assets and Liabilities, SFAS 156

985-20 Costs of software to be sold

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Tax Code (Internal Revenue Code) Section Index

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